Menopausal Disorders are disorders relating to menopause – a natural transition where women go from having normal menstrual periods to no periods at all. Menopause is the time in a woman’s life when the function of the ovaries stops and she can no longer become pregnant.


Menopause can result from:

  • Natural decline of reproductive hormones

In late 30s, ovaries start making less hormones that regulate menstruation (estrogen and progesterone), which gradually decrease periods and  by age 51 there may be no more periods.

  • Total hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy

This removes both uterus and ovaries does cause menopause.

  • Cancer Therapy

This includes Chemotherapy and radiation therapy, which can induce menopause though may not be permanent.

  • Genetic factors or autoimmune disease

It can lead to primary ovarian insufficiency in which ovaries fail to produce normal levels of reproductive hormones.

It is believed that the hormone changes (estrogen and progesterone) are responsible for menopausal disorders.


Menopause affects every woman differently. Some women may experience few or no symptoms of menopause, while others experience multiple physical and psychological symptoms. Symptoms that might start in the years around menopause include:

  • Hot flashes
  • Irregular vaginal bleeding
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Vaginal and urinary problems
  • Mood changes
  • Diminished interest in sex
  • Osteoporosis
  • Irritability,  Depression, Fatigue, Dizziness, Headaches, Numbness

In some cases the symptoms might interfere with routine in such cases treatment may become crucial.


For treatment general diet and lifestyle changes are sufficient in most cases. If that doesn’t completely relieve the symptoms, treatments may include:

  • Hormone therapy (HT) / Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) / Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy (PHT)

Estrogen and progesterone therapy are used to control the symptoms of menopause related to declining estrogen levels such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness.

  • Oral contraceptive pills

Oral contraceptive pills are another form of hormone therapy often prescribed for women in perimenopause to treat irregular vaginal bleeding.

  • Local (vaginal) hormone and Non – hormone treatments:

Local hormonal treatments are available for the symptoms of vaginal hormonal deficiency. Local and oral estrogen treatments are sometimes combined for the same.

Vaginal moisturizing agents as well as the use of lubricants are non-hormonal options for managing the discomfort of vaginal dryness.

  • Antidepressant medications

Effective in controlling the symptoms of hot flashes in most of the of the women.

  • Medications

Depending on individual needs, medication are used to prevent or treat osteoporosis. Several medications are available that help reduce bone loss and risk of fractures.

Treatments for Menopause mainly focus on relieving symptoms and preventing or managing chronic conditions that may occur with ageing like heart and blood vessel disease, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence and weight gain.